Business educators should work to create classroom experiences that better address the needs of the changing marketplace and prepare students for modern employer expectations.
Effective entrepreneurial education: A framework for innovation and implementation. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education , 7 , 39 — Challenges to business education: The gap between practices and expectations. International Journal of Business Research , 11 , — Since both Marketing and Fashion Merchandising are applied disciplines, students in both fields need practical experience in order to actually gain proficiency applying learned concepts West, West, J. Ensuring success for client-based projects: An advertising course case study.
Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education , 19 Winter , 1 — In addition, students need exposure to multiple perspectives to cultivate innovativeness Hurson, Hurson, T. Think better: An innovator's guide to productive thinking. To address these needs, the authors redesigned curricula for two of their respective classes, Creative Marketing for Marketing majors and Product Development for Fashion Merchandising majors.
First, the instructors developed a client-based project CBP that used a real client and collaboration between disciplines. This CBP aimed to provide students with a challenging real-world learning experience and allowed them to strengthen their communication and collaboration skills. Then, the instructors worked to create a learning environment appropriate for such a project. The paper begins by discussing three key problems facing recent business graduates.
Following this, sections outline the pedagogical framework and curriculum redesign process. The paper concludes with sections reporting the methods and results of the case study and with a discussion of the findings, their implications, and directions for future research. In designing this project, both researchers approached the flipped classroom CD CBP as an opportunity to present students with a challenge indicative of what they will face in authentic work contexts.
This paper directly addresses three overarching areas in which students are often weak as they enter the workforce: innovativeness, interdisciplinary collaboration, and real-world experience.
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Though creativity is still undervalued by some members of the business community, a growing number of businesses focus on the need to be innovative Hurson, Hurson, T. Reclaim your creative confidence. Harvard Business Review , 90 , — Facilitating and rewarding creativity during new product development. Journal of Marketing , 75 , 53 — Research on innovation: A review and agenda for marketing science. Marketing Science , 25 , — Unfortunately, true innovation cannot occur without utilizing creative thinking and considering multiple perspectives Hurson, Hurson, T. The flipped classroom CD CBP pushed student teams to innovate while working together to develop creative ways to accomplish both individual and group goals.
Additionally, the instructors integrated two systematic methods of problem solving into their respective classes: Design Thinking DT was taught to Product Development students, while Productive Thinking PT was taught to Creative Marketing students.
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Interpersonal and professional communication are often weak areas for recent graduates Geissler et al. While business classes are known for group projects, professors often must deal with students who do not know how to work in groups and who struggle to develop original ideas e. Brief in-class role plays: An experiential teaching tool targeted to generation Y students. Marketing Education Review , 18 , 25 — Golden duck awards: An interactive game to facilitate class participation.
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Marketing Education Review , 18 , 15 — When asked to elaborate on their understanding of class concepts, in both written and oral communication, students often struggle to use appropriate terminology when explaining their ideas; which, in a professional setting, could come across as incompetence. Furthermore, businesses today commonly utilize cross-department teams in strategy development and for problem solving Ramsey, Ramsey, R. Project management in However, few students currently get the opportunity to work on comprehensive projects with anyone outside of their own discipline.
This can lead to one-path thinking, in which students are not encouraged to examine issues from multiple perspectives Hurson, Hurson, T. Blurring boundaries between technical communication and engineering: Challenges of a multidisciplinary, client-based pedagogy. Technical Communication Quarterly , 10 , — Without experience collaborating across disciplines, or working with actual clients, students do not learn to balance the goals or needs of multiple stakeholders.
The flipped classroom CD CBP was designed to allow students to practice communicating their ideas to diverse recipients group members, instructors, clients , both in speaking and writing. Through coaching, instructors were able to help groups and individuals identify and correct breakdowns in communication among members, and address weaknesses in effectively communicating ideas to clients. In addition, groups were required to visit on-campus communication resources e. Use of collaboration and integration of real clients are both currently lacking in many business courses, meaning students can often graduate without gaining exposure to real-world scenarios.
Many students graduate without ever learning to be comfortable while dealing with problems that are complex and ill defined Lombardi, Lombardi, M.
Authentic learning for the 21st century: An overview. Educause Learning Initiative. Transforming learning for the 21st century: An economic imperative. Naperville, IL : Learning Point. For students, tasks tend to exist within a single classroom and group of students. The interdisciplinary group work required by the project was meant to take students out of this frame of thinking and force them to consider projects as a whole, rather than just as tasks within a single class. Through the project, students could gain a better understanding of the realities of collaborating in real work groups, under pressure, while managing complex, ill-defined tasks and divergent goals.servnikonsglophaz.ml
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First, both instructors redesigned their curricula around a CD collaborative CBP such that students in both classes Creative Marketing and Product Development would work in groups with each other on a joint project using real-world clients. Both instructors developed extensive course resources, which allowed students to review information outside of class, and thus freed class time for hands-on learning and group work. After designing out-of-class learning materials, the course instructors outlined class-specific adaptive coaching techniques to help guide each student group through the challenges they would face.
By definition, CBPs include real-world clients, thus giving students near real-world working experiences. Five principles for workable client-based projects: Lessons from the trenches. Journal of Marketing Education , 27 , — Two approaches to using client projects in the college classroom. Business Communication Quarterly , 67 , — A case analysis of real-world systems development experiences of CIS students. Journal of Information Systems Education , 13 , — Learning by doing: Using experiential projects in the undergraduate marketing strategy course.
Marketing Education Review , 13 , 35 — This project expanded CBPs by adding a CD element where students from both classes therefore separate disciplines worked together on interrelated sub-projects while managing goals that were at once compatible and simultaneously differing in focus. A major hurdle for the instructors was finding a real-world client with appropriate needs willing to work with student groups.
Another challenge involved orchestrating crossover in the curricula of both classes. Students from both classes were divided into four CD groups of 7—8 students, with each group having 5—6 Creative Marketing students and 2—3 Product Development students. Product Development students were tasked with developing product lines that: 1 promoted and encouraged people to visit the Front Street businesses, as a destination, 2 showed the uniqueness of the Front Street businesses, 3 were appropriate to individual business target markets, and 4 were appropriate to individual business brands.
Other than the time and page limit, the students were given few parameters. The lack of specificity of the final assignment was an essential component of the flipped classroom CD CBP. This open-ended assignment format allowed each group the freedom to emphasize what they thought was most important, thus making the project a closer match to real-world working scenarios. An initial client visit to the joint classroom at the beginning of the semester was used to jump start the flipped classroom CD CBP. Students were required to visit Front Street and complete independent research on the businesses.
In addition, students were encouraged to attend Front Street events and several business owners made themselves available to students via email and social media. Finally, two Front Street business owners visited the class during the semester, and six attended the final presentation. CD projects provide numerous benefits for students, including: learning experiences similar to real-world postgraduate work Collin, Collin, A.
Multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary collaboration: Implications for vocational psychology. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance , 9 , — Communication and performance in ad hoc task group. Gallagher , R. Egido Eds.
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Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum. The wisdom of teams. Small Business Report , 18 , 68 — Interdisciplinary English and re-forming the schools. The English Journal , 83 , 54 — However, the use of CD collaboration does involve numerous challenges for students.