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Although sweat is hypotonic lower salt content compared to blood serum, high sweat rates involve a continuous loss of sodium chloride and small amounts of potassium, which must be replaced on a daily basis.

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In addition, work in heat accelerates the turnover of trace elements including magnesium and zinc. All of these essential elements should normally be obtained from food, so workers in hot trades should be encouraged to eat well-balanced meals and avoid substituting candy bars or snack foods, which lack important nutritional components. Some diets in industrialized nations include high levels of sodium chloride, and workers on such diets are unlikely to develop salt deficits; but other, more traditional diets may not contain adequate salt.

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Under some conditions it may be necessary for the employer to provide salty snacks or other supplementary foods during the work shift. The vital component of any beverage is water, but electrolyte drinks may be useful in persons who have already developed significant dehydration water loss combined with electrolyte depletion salt loss. These drinks are generally high in salt content and should be mixed with equal or greater volumes of water before consumption. A much more economical mixture for oral rehydration can be made according to the following recipe: to one litre of water, suitable for drinking, add 40 g of sugar sucrose and 6 g of salt sodium chloride.

Workers should not be given salt tablets, as they are easily abused, and overdoses lead to gastro-intestinal problems, increased urine output and greater susceptibility to heat illness. The common goal of modification to work practices is to lower time-averaged heat stress exposure and to bring it within acceptable limits. This can be accomplished by reducing the physical workload imposed on an individual worker or by scheduling appropriate breaks for thermal recovery.

Individual effort levels can be lowered by reducing external work such as lifting, and by limiting required locomotion and static muscle tension such as that associated with awkward posture. These goals may be reached by optimizing task design according to ergonomic principles, providing mechanical aids or dividing the physical effort among more workers.

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The simplest form of schedule modification is to allow individual self-pacing. This ability to voluntarily adjust work rate probably depends on awareness of cardiovascular stress and fatigue. Human beings cannot consciously detect elevations in core body temperature; rather, they rely on skin temperature and skin wettedness to assess thermal discomfort. An alternative approach to schedule modification is the adoption of prescribed work-rest cycles, where management specifies the duration of each work bout, the length of rest breaks and the number of repetitions expected.

Thermal recovery takes much longer than the period required to lower respiratory rate and work-induced heart rate: Lowering core temperature to resting levels requires 30 to 40 min in a cool, dry environment, and takes longer if the person must rest under hot conditions or while wearing protective clothing. If a constant level of production is required, then alternating teams of workers must be assigned sequentially to hot work followed by recovery, the latter involving either rest or sedentary tasks performed in a cool place.

If cost were no object, all heat stress problems could be solved by application of engineering techniques to convert hostile working environments to hospitable ones. A wide variety of techniques may be used depending on the specific conditions of the workplace and available resources. Traditionally, hot industries can be divided into two categories: In hot-dry processes, such as metal smelting and glass production, workers are exposed to very hot air combined with strong radiant heat load, but such processes add little humidity to the air. In contrast, warm-moist industries such as textile mills, paper production and mining involve less extreme heating but create very high humidities due to wet processes and escaped steam.

The most economical techniques of environmental control usually involve reduction of heat transfer from the source to the environment. Hot air may be vented outside the work area and replaced with fresh air. Hot surfaces can be covered with insulation or given reflective coatings to reduce heat emissions, simultaneously conserving heat which is needed for the industrial process.

A second line of defence is large-scale ventilation of the work area to provide a strong flow of outside air. The most expensive option is air conditioning to cool and dry the atmosphere in the workplace.

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Although lowering air temperature does not affect transmission of radiant heat, it does help to reduce the temperature of the walls and other surfaces which may be secondary sources of convective and radiative heating. When overall environmental control proves impractical or uneconomical, it may be possible to ameliorate thermal conditions in local work areas.

Local or even portable reflective shielding may be interposed between the worker and a radiant heat source. Alternatively, modern engineering techniques may allow construction of remote systems to control hot processes so that workers need not suffer routine exposure to highly stressful heat environments.


For instance, a spring heat wave can precipitate an epidemic of heat illness among workers who are not yet heat acclimatized as they would be in summer. Management should therefore implement a system for predicting weather-related changes in heat stress so that timely precautions can be taken. Work in extreme thermal conditions may require personal thermal protection in the form of specialized clothing.

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Passive protection is provided by insulative and reflective garments; insulation alone can buffer the skin from thermal transients. Reflective aprons may be used to protect personnel who work facing a limited radiant source. Another form of passive protection is the ice vest, which is loaded with slush or frozen packets of ice or dry ice and is worn over an undershirt to prevent uncomfortable chilling of the skin. The phase change of the melting ice absorbs part of the metabolic and environmental heat load from the covered area, but the ice must be replaced at regular intervals; the greater the heat load, the more frequently the ice must be replaced.

Ice vests have proven most useful in deep mines, ship engine rooms, and other very hot, humid environments where access to freezers can be arranged. Active thermal protection is provided by air- or liquid-cooled garments which cover the entire body or some portion of it, usually the torso and sometimes the head.

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Air cooling. The simplest systems are ventilated with the surrounding, ambient air or with compressed air cooled by expansion or passage through a vortex device. Air cooling can theoretically take place through convection temperature change or evaporation of sweat phase change. However, the effectiveness of convection is limited by the low specific heat of air and the difficulty in delivering it at low temperatures in hot surroundings.

Most air-cooled garments therefore operate through evaporative cooling. The worker experiences moderate heat stress and attendant dehydration, but is able to thermoregulate through natural control of the sweat rate. Air cooling also enhances comfort through its tendency to dry the underclothing.

Disadvantages include 1 the need to connect the subject to the air source, 2 the bulk of air distribution garments and 3 the difficulty of delivering air to the limbs. Liquid cooling. These systems circulate a water-antifreeze mixture through a network of channels or small tubes and then return the warmed liquid to a heat sink which removes the heat added during passage over the body. The heat sink may dissipate thermal energy to the environment through evaporation, melting, refrigeration or thermoelectric processes.

Liquid-cooled garments offer far greater cooling potential than air systems. A full-coverage suit linked to an adequate heat sink can remove all metabolic heat and maintain thermal comfort without the need to sweat; such a system is used by astronauts working outside their spacecraft.

However, such a powerful cooling mechanism requires some type of comfort control system which usually involves manual setting of a valve which shunts part of the circulating liquid past the heat sink. Liquid-cooled systems can be configured as a back pack to provide continuous cooling during work. Any cooling device which adds weight and bulk to the human body, of course, may interfere with the work at hand. For instance, the weight of an ice vest significantly increases the metabolic cost of locomotion, and is therefore most useful for light physical work such as watch-standing in hot compartments.

Systems which tether the worker to a heat sink are impractical for many types of work.


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Intermittent cooling may be useful where workers must wear heavy protective clothing such as chemical protective suits and cannot carry a heat sink or be tethered while they work. Removing the suit for each rest break is time consuming and involves possible toxic exposure; under these conditions, it is simpler to have the workers wear a cooling garment which is attached to a heat sink only during rest, allowing thermal recovery under otherwise unacceptable conditions. The human body exchanges heat with its environment by various pathways: conduction across the surfaces in contact with it, convection and evaporation with the ambient air, and radiation with the neighbouring surfaces.

Conduction is the transmission of heat between two solids in contact. Such exchanges are observed between the skin and clothing, footwear, pressure points seat, handles , tools and so on. In practice, in the mathematical calculation of thermal balance, this heat flow by conduction is approximated indirectly as a quantity equal to the heat flow by convection and radiation which would take place if these surfaces were not in contact with other materials.

Convection is the transfer of heat between the skin and the air surrounding it. Air circulation, known as natural convection, is thus established at the surface of the body. This exchange becomes greater if the ambient air passes over the skin at a certain speed: the convection becomes forced. Moreover, it receives the radiation emitted by neighbouring surfaces. F clR is the factor by which clothing reduces radiation heat exchange. This expression may be replaced by a simplified equation of the same type as that for exchanges by convection:.

Every wet surface has on it a layer of air saturated with water vapour. If the atmosphere itself is not saturated, the vapour diffuses from this layer towards the atmosphere. The layer then tends to be regenerated by drawing on the heat of evaporation 0. P sk,s is the saturated pressure of water vapour at the temperature of the skin expressed in kPa.

P a is the ambient partial pressure of water vapour expressed in kPa. F pcl is the factor of reduction of exchanges by evaporation due to clothing. A correction factor operates in the calculation of heat flow by convection, radiation and evaporation so as to take account of clothing. In the case of cotton clothing, the two reduction factors F clC and F clR may be determined by:.