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Articles Cited by Co-authors. Deliberative systems: Deliberative democracy at the large scale, , British Journal of Political Science 36 1 , , British journal of political science conference, , Australian Journal of Political Science 39 3 , , Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 31 4 , , Articles 1—20 Show more. Help Privacy Terms.
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Symbolic representation in public space: Capital cities, presence and memory J Parkinson Representation 45 1 , , Deliberative democracy and referendums J Parkinson Challenges to Democracy, , How is space public? Does democracy require physical public space? In December, two statues of Confederate leaders were removed from Memphis parks — a long-awaited move in this majority-minority city, where public parks honoring the president of the Confederacy and an early leader of the Ku Klux Klan were hardly reflective of community sentiment.
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Following the Charleston massacre inside a historically black church, the Southern Poverty Law Center initiated a count-and-mapping of Confederate place names and other symbols in public spaces across the U. The study identified a total of 1, such places.
In , the city council voted unanimously to rename three public parks that honored the Confederacy. Three years later, the city council voted unanimously to remove the statues of Jefferson Davis and Nathan Bedford Forrest. Unfortunately, at every step of the way, the Tennessee state legislature attempted to throw up roadblocks to the will of the people in Memphis.
Following the council vote in , the Tennessee Heritage Protection Act was enacted to require approval of any removal or relocation of memorials by a state historical commission.
Email Address. In , following the resolution to remove the statues, the Act was strengthened to require a two-thirds vote by the commission. Later, after the city creatively exploited a legal loophole for memorial removal by transferring park ownership to a non-profit, the state did all it could to make them pay. The punitive measure marks a new low for the Tennessee legislature, which has a history of inserting state preemption over local authority.ipdwew0030atl2.public.registeredsite.com/map163.php
DEMOCRACY AND PUBLIC SPACE: THE PHYSICAL SITES OF DEMOCRATIC PERFORMANCE ‐ by John R. Parkinson
In terms of using state power to control memorials and statues in local parks, Tennesse is hardly alone. But this new front in a surging nationwide preemption battle is uniquely chilling to local democracy. Reckoning with the legacy of the Confederacy and Civil War is a critical public conversation for many Southern cities — made all the more concrete when symbols of that history sit in places of reverence in public spaces.
Parks, plazas, and city halls are gathering places for recreation and for protest. They serve as physical representations of civic identity and values.
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And as the culture and demographics of a city change, it is necessary to reconsider what that identify is. It is impossible to overstate the significance of prominent parks and plazas to the functioning of democracy in cities.