I can't understand how it is being used here. Local time: Explanation: try this. You're right- the Italian is not well-written. Tom in London. Pompeo Lattanzi. Michael Korovkin. Sarah Jane Webb. A somewhat loose translation best renders the meaning, IMHO. Peer comments on this answer and responses from the answerer agree. Elizabeth Lyons : or don't focus on a single ideology and direction. Login to enter a peer comment or grade. Notes to answerer Asker: Thanks Tom. This is indeed the shortest and simplest.
Will grade as soon as I can. My understanding is that "traguardare" here means to aim at, work towards, a common objective. I found some interesting entries for "traguardare" in Wikipedia: Organi di mira composto da un piccolo tubo montato nella stessa posizione del mirino, con un piccolo anello concentrico usato per traguardare il bersaglio.
Self-portrait in a Convex Mirror: Colonial Italy Reflects on Tianjin
Arco compound mirini e diottra sistema di mira che permette all'arciere di traguardare dei punti di mira - normalmente da 1 a 5 a seconda delle You are still translating that fraud? Or is it another one? Here's my experience on the subject: Once I was asked to translate-cum-ghostwrite a book. The original text was a disaster, boring to boot; but instead of refusing outright I just added a zero to a standard price for this sort of work So, I did a book at nearly three hundred Euro per page cash!
Lots of pages too! After that I never say no to any job — just put up a preposterous price tag. Notes to answerer Asker: Yes, same fraud.
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I had finished last week but had left this bit out as was advised. Jones emphasises the poor conditions of the concessions area, by describing the continuous danger of flood, and the cost of maintaining the high mud banks. He mentions for example, the so-called extra-mural extension in the British concession, which would have required the moving of two hundred million cubic feet of river silt. The location of Tianjin was strategically important for the commercial penetration of China.
Situated in the densely populated and productive North China Plain, on the Haihe at the northern terminus of the Grand Canal, and on the axis Dagu-Tianjin-Beijing axis, Tianjin has traditionally been the port of Beijing, which is only km 72 miles to the north-west. Historically, the commercial, military, and ultimately strategic importance of Tianjin can be recognised on two levels. During the nineteenth century, through cycles of destruction and reconstruction, Tianjin developed from being a vibrant ancient walled Chinese city to becoming arguably the most important commercial city in Northern China.
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This was mainly due to its strategic location in terms of economic domain, access and transport: Tianjin became not only the hub of the expanding railway network, but also a major international trading city with shipping connections to all parts of Asia. On the cover of the book appear Japanese children, clearly and embarrassingly mistaken for Chinese.
The historian however, cannot refrain from noticing a continuous attempt to obliterate the idea that Italy, for almost half a century, had a concession zujie in Tianjin, and not a neighbourhood. It indicates an area or district where the inhabitants share the fact of co-inhabiting a space and, at times, certain habits and customs, or might know or somehow communicate with each other through formal or informal channels.
Figure 3. Retrieved 10 June Figure 4. Building, renovation and restoration in the former Italian concession. Photograph taken on 25 June Figure 5. The Royal Minister in Beijing, Salvago Raggi, thought it was the best area, clearly indicating prospects for rapid and successful development. The Italian Consule in Tianjin Cavalier Poma did not agree with this re-presentation, since the area consisted of a populous Chinese quarter, a cemetery, and wetlands, which did not seem to be very promising. Some of the Italian sources indicate that the British would have reserved for themselves the best area.
There were two channels to be explored: public funding and private forms of investment. The leveling of the territory was considered a priority, implying both the removal of the cemetery and the drainage of the marshes. On the 5 th of July , a public auction programtried to attract potential buyers for the allotments of the Italian concession. The Building Regulations specified that:. It was only in that the Italian Government finally decided to allocate , Lire to promote the development of the Italian concession.
What tends to be obliterated is the history of the various locations of the Italian Consulate, which was actually a sort of odyssey. Originally the Italian Consular office was hosted in the British concession, later, from to , the Consulate was lodged first in a Chinese house, then in the military barracks area. This building was seen as the proper affirmation of the Italian presence in Tianjin. In , the architect Bonetti, a resident of the concession, drew up a plan to expand the building by means of a heated verandah, to be used as a reception room.
Figure 7. Villas in Italian renaissance style , located around the piazza in the ex-Italian concession, Minzulu and Ziyoulu. In the case of Italy, the export to China of the neo-renaissance style can be interpreted as a way of affirming its prestige and its positioning as a colonial power on the same level of the others. By the end of the XIX century this style was a commonplace sight on the main streets of thousands of towns, large and small around the world.
The Italian neo-renaissance style was present also in the French concession: an example is the church of St. These buildings are both situated today on Jiefangbeilu North Liberation St.
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Foreign journalist like H. Woodhead, in , stated:. Some of the most interesting buildings from the concession era are located on what is called today Jiefangbei Lu, which runs parallel to the river. Some of the most fascinating Italian style villas from the period are located in what are called today Minzulu National Rd. The key adjectives used by Borgnino in his description of that area before the Italian intervention are: miserable, noxious, desolated and sad.
The achievements emphasized by Borgnino are advanced civil engineering and infrastructural projects: large roads, elegant buildings, a modern hospital, the availability of electricity and potable water in all houses, the advanced sewage system, and the public landscaping. Borgnino was also in charge of the drawings of the Italian Municipal Council building.
Considering his personal involvement in the creation of the concession, his tone and selective approach are an indication of a self-congratulatory attitude. One of the most significant examples of this narrative tendency is offered by the lesson delivered by Dr. In fifty-eight letters and photographs to the mother he describes the relations between the different military troops, mentioning the killing, the looting and other atrocious excesses, and in the end he sadly recognises that:. The few times they arrived on time, they behaved like the others.
Thus the concession became the ideal ground for experimentation and reinvention of the collective identity of Italy as a glorious and unified nation. The problem here is that the fictitious construction of this defiantly optimistic macro-story of benign colonialism may be unable to repulse an all-to-beguiling narrative of repeated systemic failure, which unmasks the continuous, desperate attempt to catch up with the other imperialist nations. This was the motivation for the Italian interventionism in the First World War: in order for the country to become complete is was necessary to regain those bordering areas.
This is particularly evident from the following representation offered by engineer Borgnino:.
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This boulevard, crossed through by a tram line managed by a local company, absorbs all the traffic from the Chinese city to the Tianjin east railway station and the other concessions. Obviously, the public buildings should have been erected on this Boulevard. The source Tianjin zujie ji tequ is extremely precise about the nature, the origin and the organisation of the concession.
Most of the time it is mainly remembered for the architectural style, creating another sort of self- orientalism. The total surface was mu. In the first paragraph, the author Jihua immediately sets the tone of a very different kind of imagined community when compared with the Italian sources.
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Moreover, the acquisition of the Italian concession is seen in line with the general trend of the other nations. The author depicts Italy, Belgium and Austria as late-comers in the scramble for concessions, emphasising that they basically imitated the shamefully successful example of the other nations England, France, United States, Germany and Japan , using military alliances and aggressive warfare the Chinese expression used here is jiqixiaoyou. The article continues, creating a peculiar story of gambling, drug production and use as being common phenomena in the Italian concession. The last part of the article delves into the deepening of the Christian influence in the concession, which was perceived as a sign of imperialist penetration.
It is striking to notice the cycles of destruction-reconstruction where the old buildings are merging with the new ones, creating a paradoxical effect where reality and virtual images, past and present, are so intertwined as to become undistinguishable. But the locale still carries the. Figure 8. Photograph taken on 24 June in Minshenglu in the ex-Italian concession. Figure 9. Photograph taken on 24 June in Minzulu in the ex-Italian concession. Four years before, at the beginning of , Italy had already agreed with its then ally Japan to renounce exercising any power on Chinese citizens and transferring the responsibility to the Nanjing Government.
This endeavour requires a re-conceptualisation of history which de-mystifies its fictive and multidimensional character. My intention is to look through the conscious or unconscious implementation of explicit or implicit schemes of perception, which tend to affirm the sovereignty of the colonial subject. I seek to unmask the narrative mechanisms which show an all-too-beguiling appreciation of the Italian intervention in Tianjin and capitalise on the absolute depreciation of the pre-existent situation.
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Mbembe argues that:.