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Abstract We present a stable and efficient method for the Bloch-mode computation of one-dimensional grating waveguides. Fourier-modal methods applied to waveguide computational problems Philippe Lalanne and Eric Silberstein Opt.

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Numerical stable method for the analysis of Bloch waves in a general one-dimensional photonic crystal cavity W. More Recommended Articles. Numerical performance of finite-difference modal methods for the electromagnetic analysis of one-dimensional lamellar gratings Philippe Lalanne and Jean-Paul Hugonin J.

Theoretical and computational concepts for periodic optical waveguides G. References You do not have subscription access to this journal.

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Select as filters. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Terms of Use. Petersburg and Warsaw.

The line went into service at the end of He built further connections, for example, to Lodz, and made a fortune from them. In Warsaw, he founded his own banking house and was the main shareholder in the Southwest Railway Company, which operated the Brest-Kiev and Brest-Odessa lines in addition to building additional railroads. Bloch was now considered one of the most successful "railway barons" of his day.

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At the same time, he was looking for ways to "diversify his business portfolio", as one would say today. He invested capital in the sugar, timber, and paper industries and bought up estates and shares in public companies. In the second half of the s, he reached the zenith of his career. He was co-founder of a merchant bank, sat on the board of directors of the Bank of Poland, and was chairman of the Trade Association and president of the Warsaw Stock Exchange.

At this point, he began a second career as a scientific publicist. In the context of numerous, extended journeys abroad, including to the Humboldt University in Berlin, he at first dealt extensively with problems of national economy. This was followed by a five-volume statistical investigation of how the railway influenced Russia's national economic development.

These works were in turn joined by studies on Russia's finances in the nineteenth century, the factory industry in Poland, and agricultural credit policy.

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Two of his later works brought him into a crossfire of criticism: the first dealt with the situation of the Jews, the second with the future of warfare. Responding to an outbreak of pogroms in the southwest part of the Pale of Settlement and the anti-Semitic stereotypes of "Jewish exploitation" used to justify them, Bloch turned his attention to the economic activities of the Jews. He presented a memorandum to the Russian government in the s, in which he examined the national economic effects of land leasing on the Jews.

Later, Bloch used his direct access to Alexander III to stop the Russian government from extending to the Kingdom of Poland legislation that was to restrict the economic activity of the Jews living there. As a thinker committed to the Enlightenment, Bloch was convinced that prejudices could be undermined by empirical facts, and that state anti-Semitism could be overcome in this way.

In , he completed a multi-volume systematic, comparative investigation into economic performance and wealth. Because of his work on behalf of Jewish interests, Bloch became a target for anti-Semitic reactionary groups. A fire at the printing press destroyed almost the entire print run of this latter work. The cause of the fire was never explained. The findings, however, were published and disseminated after Bloch's death in a summary by A.

Bloch attracted international attention only with his magnum opus, which for a time established his reputation as one of the most influential pacifists of Europe. It was the Russo-Turkish War that stirred Bloch's interest in military affairs. During the conflict, he had been in charge of railway transport and had organised provisions for the troops. This experience left him with the impression that the military did not understand even the most basic consequences of industrialisation on warfare.

This led to a long-term preoccupation with military and technical issues. At first, he merely wanted to solve the problems of logistics and infrastructure encountered in transporting troops. In the course of this work, Jan Bloch — who the State Council ennobled as Johann von Bloch in for his services to railway construction — became a committed pacifist. It was simultaneously published in French.

The six-volume work includes a wealth of illustrations, tables, foldout maps, and sketches of all kinds. It is no exaggeration to count the book among the classics of peace and conflict research — except that it remains an undiscovered classic. Ultimately, this meant dismissing Clausewitz: "War as the continuation of politics by other means" had become obsolete, according to Bloch, because it could no longer be decided on the battlefield. Otherwise, the European powers would face a battle of materiel, which would make such demands on financial and human resources that no country could sustain it.

Finally, he presaged the collapse of national economies — first and foremost Russia's. Moreover, wherever the civilian population was drawn into the war and soldiers returned home demoralised by the enormous losses and senseless battles of materiel, internal political consequences would become unavoidable.

War would foster subversive, revolutionary movements. To prevent all of this, Bloch advocated preventative measures so that conflicts between countries could be resolved peacefully. In particular, he championed an international forum for arms control and an international court of justice. Bloch was the first to develop a systematic concept of peace as a mechanism for preventing revolution. This made him suspect among members of the Socialist International, who otherwise welcomed the work's critical stance towards the military. Bloch's fundamental criticism of the arms race and warfare was firmly rejected in military circles.

The Russian military press ignored the book and denounced its author as a parvenu and converted Jew. However, he was successful in one respect: after the book was published, Bloch put all his boundless energy into promoting his ideas.


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His book, pamphlets, and lectures caused a sensation all over Europe. In Russia, he succeeded in attracting the Tsar's attention. Bloch's influence on the Russian government's decision to request a conference on disarmament, or at least on arms limits, is unquestioned.

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